The best start
Benefits of breastfeeding
It’s never too early to start thinking about how you’re going to feed your baby. But you don’t have to make up your mind until your baby is born.
In the UK, more than 73% of mothers start breastfeeding. These are some of the reasons why:
• your breast milk is perfectly designed for your baby
• breast milk protects your baby from infections and diseases
• breastfeeding provides health benefits for you
• breast milk is available for your baby whenever your baby needs it
• breastfeeding can build a strong emotional bond between you and your baby
Formula milk doesn’t provide the same protection from illness and doesn’t give you any health benefits.
Health benefits of breastfeeding for your baby
Breastfeeding has long-term benefits for your baby, lasting right into adulthood.
Any amount of breast milk has a positive effect. The longer you breastfeed, the longer the protection lasts and the greater the benefits.
Breastfeeding reduces your baby’s risk of:
• infections, with fewer visits to hospital as a result
• diarrhoea and vomiting, with fewer visits to hospital as a result
• sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
• childhood leukaemia
• type 2 diabetes
• cardiovascular disease in adulthood
Giving nothing but breast milk is recommended for about the first six months (26 weeks) of your baby’s life.
After that, giving your baby breast milk alongside family foods for as long as you and your baby want will help them grow and develop healthily.
Breast milk adapts as your baby grows to meet your baby’s changing needs.
Health benefits of breastfeeding for you
Breastfeeding and making breast milk also has health benefits for you. The more you breastfeed, the greater the benefits.
Breastfeeding lowers your risk of:
• breast cancer
• ovarian cancer
• osteoporosis (weak bones)
• cardiovascular disease
Breastfeeding: the first few days
In the first few days, you and your baby will be getting to know each other. It may take time for both of you to get the hang of breastfeeding.
This happens more quickly for some women than others. But nearly all women produce enough milk for their baby.
Preparing to breastfeed before the birth
It’s good to find out as much as you can about breastfeeding before you have your baby. It will help you feel more confident when you start breastfeeding your baby.
Antenatal classes (https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/pregnancy-and-baby/antenatal-classes-pregnant/) usually cover the most important aspects of breastfeeding, such as positioning and attachment (https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/pregnancy-and-baby/breastfeeding-positioning-attachment/), expressing (https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/pregnancy-and-baby/expressing-storing-breast-milk/), common breastfeeding problems (https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/pregnancy-and-baby/problems-breastfeeding/) and how to tackle them.
To find antenatal classes near you, go to https://www.nhs.uk/Service-Search/Antenatal%20classes/LocationSearch/358
You can find out about breastfeeding from your midwife, from family and friends, and useful helplines and websites at https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/pregnancy-and-baby/breastfeeding-help-support/
There are lots of groups and drop-ins, some specially designed for pregnant women who want to know more about breastfeeding. You can find out more by asking your midwife, health visitor, local peer supporter or GP. Or visit your local Children’s Centre.
Having skin-to-skin contact with your baby straight after the birth will help to keep them warm and calm, and steady their breathing.
Skin to skin means holding your baby naked or dressed only in a nappy against your skin, usually under your top or under a blanket.
Skin-to-skin time can be a bonding experience for you and your baby. It’s also a great time to have your first breastfeed. If you need any help, your midwife will support you with positioning and attachment (https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/pregnancy-and-baby/breastfeeding-positioning-attachment/).
Skin-to-skin contact is good at any time. It will help to comfort you and your baby over the first few days and weeks as you get to know each other. It also helps your baby attach to your breast using their natural crawling and latching on reflexes.
If skin-to-skin contact is delayed for some reason – for example, if your baby needs to spend some time in special care – it doesn’t mean you won’t be able to bond with or breastfeed your baby.
If necessary, your midwife will show you how to express your breast milk until your baby is ready to breastfeed. They will also help you have skin-to-skin contact with your baby as soon as it’s possible.
Skin-to-skin after a caesarean
If your baby is born by caesarean, you should still be able to have skin-to-skin contact with your baby straight after the birth.
Colostrum: your first milk
The fluid your breasts produce in the first few days after birth is called colostrum. It’s usually a golden yellow colour. It’s a very concentrated food, so your baby will only need about a teaspoonful at each feed.
Your baby may want to feed quite often, perhaps every hour to begin with. They’ll begin to have fewer, longer feeds once your breasts start to produce more “mature” milk after a
The more you breastfeed, the more your baby’s sucking will stimulate your supply and the more milk you’ll make.
Your let-down reflex
Your baby’s sucking causes milk stored in your breasts to be squeezed down ducts towards your nipples. This is called the let-down reflex.
Some women get a tingling feeling, which can be quite strong. Others feel nothing at all.
You’ll see your baby respond when your milk lets down. Their quick sucks will change to deep rhythmic swallows as the milk begins to flow. Babies often pause after the initial quick sucks while they wait for more milk to be delivered.
Occasionally this let-down reflex can be so strong that your baby coughs and splutters. Your midwife, health visitor or breastfeeding supporter can help with this, or see some tips for when you have too much breast milk.
If your baby seems to be falling asleep before the deep swallowing stage of feeds, they may not be properly attached to the breast. Ask your midwife, health visitor or breastfeeding supporter to check your baby’s positioning and attachment.
Sometimes you’ll notice your milk letting down in response to your baby crying or when you have a warm bath or shower. This is normal.
How often should I feed my baby?
How often babies feed varies. As a very rough guide, your baby should feed at least eight times or more every 24 hours during the first few weeks.
It’s fine to feed your baby whenever they are hungry, when your breasts feel full or if you just want to have a cuddle.
It’s not possible to overfeed a breastfed baby.
When your baby is hungry they may:
• get restless
• suck their fist or fingers
• make murmuring sounds
• turn their head and open their mouth (rooting)
It’s best to try and feed your baby during these early feeding cues as a crying baby is difficult to feed.
Building up your milk supply
Around two to four days after birth you may notice that your breasts become fuller and warmer. This is often referred to as your milk “coming in”.
Your milk will vary according to your baby’s needs. Each time your baby feeds, your body knows to make more milk for the next feed. The amount of milk you make will increase or decrease depending on how often your baby feeds.
In the early weeks, “topping up” with formula milk or giving your baby a dummy can lower your milk supply.
Feed your baby as often as they want and for as long as they want. This is called responsive feeding. In other words, responding to your baby’s needs. It’s also known as on-demand or baby-led feeding.
In the beginning, it can feel like you’re doing nothing but feeding. But gradually you and your baby will get into a pattern, and the amount of milk you produce will settle down.
It’s important to breastfeed at night because this is when you produce more hormones (prolactin) to build up your milk supply.
See how to tell if your baby is getting enough milk at https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/pregnancy-and-baby/breastfeeding-is-baby-getting-enough-milk/
Dealing with leaking breasts
Sometimes, breast milk may leak unexpectedly from your nipples. Press the heel of your hand gently but firmly on your breast when this happens.
Wearing breast pads will stop your clothes becoming wet with breast milk. Remember to change them frequently to prevent any infection.
Expressing some milk may also help (https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/pregnancy-and-baby/expressing-storing-breast-milk/). Only express enough to feel comfortable as you don’t want to overstimulate your supply.
If your baby hasn’t fed recently you could offer them a feed as breastfeeding is also about you being comfortable.
Help and support for breastfeeding
For more information on how to get comfortable and make sure your baby is properly attached, see Positioning and attachment at https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/pregnancy-and-baby/breastfeeding-positioning-attachment/
If you are having difficulties with breastfeeding, take a look at Breastfeeding problems at https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/pregnancy-and-baby/problems-breastfeeding/
Ask your midwife or health visitor for help. They can also tell you about other breastfeeding support available near you.
Search online for breastfeeding support in your area at https://www.nhs.uk/service-search/Breastfeeding-support-services/LocationSearch/360
Call the National Breastfeeding Helpline on 0300 100 0212 (9.30am-9.30pm daily).
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Article: Courtesy of NHS Choices
If you experience abnormal nipple discharge/swelling, if baby does not take to the breast or fails to gain weight, please seek immediate medical advice from your midwife, health visitor or GP.